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It is impossible to get an excellent harvest of tomatoes in the open field without proper care. Following simple growing rules, planting high and low tomatoes will become easier even in the country. For their stable growth and fruiting, it is necessary to create the necessary conditions.
In this article, you will learn how to choose a variety of tomatoes for outdoor cultivation, how to prepare the soil, seeds and seedlings. We will also tell you in detail about the process of planting tomatoes and reveal the secrets of proper care, observing which you can get a rich harvest.
How can you choose a variety for growing using soil technology: basic rules and criteria
In the open field, tomatoes are grown with different ripening periods. In this case, the fruits can be obtained continuously. There are certain selection criteria. Varietal characteristics.
- Ordinary or lodging (non-standard) tomatoes... They have a thin stem. These varieties are highly branched and need support.
- Stamp... These include early and mid-early varieties. They have a dense stem and a small root system. These undersized varieties do not stretch.
- Potato... They got their name from the shape of the leaves.
Tomatoes are divided, depending on the nature of their growth, into:
- Determinant... One bush can have 5 brushes. For 20 days of cultivation, they can give 50% of the upcoming harvest.
- Indeterminate... Growing indeterminate tomatoes is recommended in areas with hot climates. The varieties give tasty and large fruits.
- Semi-determinant... They are characterized by low growth, form up to 3 brushes.
The growing season for different varieties is different, it is calculated in days:
- early maturing - up to 100;
- medium early - 101-110;
- mid-season - 111-115;
- medium late - 116 - 120;
- late - more than 120.
Large-fruiting tomatoes take longer to ripen and require more care. Those varieties of tomatoes, the growing season of which exceeds 100 days, ripen in the open field only in the southern regions.
Preparatory work: the nuances of agricultural technology
In Russia, tomatoes are grown outdoors only with the help of seedlings... It is customary to plant it after the probability of recurrent frosts disappears. Based on this, it is necessary to draw up a schedule for growing seedlings, which will take into account the ripening time of a certain variety of tomatoes. For example, on the bushes of the indeterminate "President" variety, fruits appear after 70-80 days. This means that seeds for seedlings must be sown in mid-April, and planted in the ground after 40-50 days.
How to prepare the soil correctly?
Prepare the soil in the fall. Spread bird droppings or cow dung.
Important! The manure must be rotted. Fresh will have a negative effect on the tomato yield.
It is advisable to add a mineral complex to organic fertilizer, which includes superphosphate and potassium salt. It is advisable to feed the land in autumn because during the rains, fertilizers are absorbed into the soil evenly. After that, the land needs to be plowed. In the spring, they dig up the soil again. Since tomatoes have a weak root system, they need soil:
- not dense;
- moisture permeable.
You can get a rich harvest of tomatoes in the open field only if you observe the crop rotation. Tomatoes cannot be planted in the place where nightshades grew... But with what you can grow tomatoes together:
Before sowing seeds for seedlings, it is recommended to subject them to:
- warming up;
After warming up the seeds, which are suspended for 1-1.5 months near the heating system, tomatoes become drought-resistant. During the hardening procedure seeds, wrapped in a damp cloth, are first placed in a refrigerator for 12 hours, and then warmed for several hours at a temperature of + 20 ° C ... + 22 ° C.
After that, put it back in the refrigerator. This process, which lasts for 5-7 days, endows tomato bushes with resistance to negative temperatures.
In order to get rid of the possible presence of bacteria, fungi and viruses on the surface of tomato seeds, they are treated with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour.
Gardeners recommend preparing seedlings in advance for unstable weather temperatures and intense exposure to sunlight. First, in the room in which the seedlings are located, open the window for a while. because take out seedlings to fresh air, first for 10-15 minutes, and then for the whole day... Hardened tomatoes, after planting in open ground, will also grow well, they will not get burns.
To get a good harvest of tomatoes, you have to follow a number of rules regarding their cultivation and care, namely:
- choose a suitable place and soil for landing;
- plant correctly;
- take proper care of it.
To plant a tomato, you need to allocate a sunny place that is well protected from the cold wind. They are not suitable for damp, low areas in which groundwater is located close to the surface. Such places negatively affect the root system of plants. Tomatoes can be grown in the same place for several years..
Attention! By the time the seedlings are planted, the soil should warm up to a depth of 20 cm to + 10 ° С ... + 12 ° С. They are planted in a permanent place in the month of May. If it is cloudy on the day of planting, then you can plant in the morning, if it is sunny - then by the evening. Seedlings must be fresh at the time of planting.
Even with its slight wilting, the bushes will slow down their growth, there may be a partial fall of the first flowers. Most often, tomato seedlings are planted in nests. There are two standard layouts: square and tape. With a square scheme, the size of the hole for varieties of standard, determinant and spreading early ripening is 70x70 cm.They are planted in a nest in 2-3 bushes.
Mid- and late-ripening varieties should be planted in a 1x1 m hole, two seedlings each... The strip scheme represents irrigation furrows every 1.4 m. Tomato seedlings are planted on both sides in 1 nest at a distance of 70 cm to the other nest. The distance can be changed. However, gardeners are advised to leave a space of at least 0.3 m for growing a tomato bush.3.
The soil must be shed with hot water with potassium permanganate: 1 bucket for 8 holes. Fertilize with mineral compounds with humus - 1: 3. Remove the seedling carefully. Tear off all the leaves, leaving the top three. Put a bush with an earthen lump in the hole, add compost, tamp, cover with dry earth. Do not cover the stem with soil.
Arrange a 10 cm mulching layer on top of:
- withered grass.
Only after 15 days, the plants are spud up to a stem height of up to 12 cm.
Photo of a big harvest
In the photo you will see what a good harvest of sweet tall tomatoes looks like after the formation of a bush during cultivation:
Secrets of caring for tomatoes from A to Z: the experience of farmers
Planted tomatoes need to be regularly watered, weeded and hilled... When ovaries appear, tomatoes are watered once a week. They do not tolerate excess moisture, this leads to the development of fungal diseases. During the growth and ripening of fruits, water should be watered once every 5-6 days. Watering is performed at the root. You need to take warm water. It is recommended to do this work in the late afternoon.
Open field tomatoes need feeding. First, the seedlings are fertilized with compounds with a large amount of nitrogen. After 2-3 weeks have passed after seed germination, as well as before planting, it is advised to use fertilizers with a significant content of potassium and phosphorus.
Important! The last time the seedlings should be fertilized no later than a week before planting in open ground.
After each watering or rain, it is recommended to loosen the soil under the tomato bushes. Such a procedure, carried out in dry hot weather, reduces the evaporation of moisture, and in cold weather reduces the risk of infection with fungal diseases, ensures optimal gas exchange between the ground and the air.
Next to each tomato bush, it is imperative to put a peg on the north side. It is installed at a distance of 10 cm from the stem to a depth of 30-40 cm. It rises up to 80 cm above the ground. The bush is tied to this peg as it grows. It is not necessary to do this tightly.
To get more fruits and their quick ripening, the bushes need to be formed. Gardeners are advised to leave one main stem and remove the rest. The pinching procedure must be performed regularly... Those sprouts that form from the base of existing brushes must be removed.
It is also necessary to remove the leaves growing below the first branches. You just need to pinch them off with two fingers. Harvesting of tomatoes grown in the open field begins in mid-July and continues until the end of October. Fruits that will be harvested after frost are not suitable for storage and consumption.