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Everything about table beets: description and photos of the best varieties, benefits and harms to the body, cultivation features


Beetroot (lat. Béta vulgáris) is a plant of the haze family, known from antiquity. The wild form, the progenitor of cultivated varieties, is still found in Iran, India, Egypt, in the Crimea and the Caucasus.

The Slavs borrowed from the Greeks, hence the name from the Greek "sphekeli". From Kievan Rus in the 11th century it came to Moscow and began to be grown throughout Russia.

Let's talk about the vegetable itself, popular varieties of root crops and the technology of its cultivation, as well as how table beets differ from other types.

What it is?

Varieties are grouped into four varieties:

  • Egyptian;
  • Bordeaux;
  • Eclipse;
  • Erfurt.

Signs of a botanical variety: shape and color of the pulp, ringiness, consistency, ripening time. By maturity, they are divided into early-ripening, mid-ripening and late-ripening. Root yield per hectare - 40-50 tons, maximum 90 tons.

Breeding history

Beets have a strong root system, use mineral, organic fertilizers and lime for the quality and keeping quality of products. By selection, varieties and hybrids were bred, adapted to the soil and climate of the regions, with longevity and disease resistance. In the State Register of Russia there are 95 varieties and hybrids of canteen beet, including 70 - domestic and 25 - foreign, more often Dutch, selection. The zoned varieties are mid-season. All-Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Growing evaluates samples of domestic and foreign selection in terms of yield, quality and keeping quality.

What GOST is used for a vegetable?

The current GOST is “1722-85 Fresh table beets, harvested and supplied. Specifications "(with Amendments N 1, 2, 3).

Differences from other types of beets

  1. Sugar content (from sugar).
  2. Color:
    • sugar - pale;
    • stern is red, pink and orange;
    • dining room - dark red or purple-red;

Important! Purpose - sugar is produced from sugar beets, cattle are fed for fodder, table beets are in the human diet.

Advantages and disadvantages

Not demanding on conditions, retains nutritional value, useful properties and taste. The disadvantage is the accumulation of nitrates with an excess of mineral fertilizers.

Description of varieties and their photos

Almost all of these varieties can be used in household plots.

Hybrids, or updated

Mona

Mid-season one-growing, for processing and storage. Cylindrical, red with dark red flesh, rings are poorly expressed, taste.

Action

An early hybrid. Rounded, strong root system. Evenly colored, without rings.

Rhonda F1

Rounded, smooth, medium early. Cleaning with top-lifting combines. Drought tolerant, stored for a long time, does not darken.

Khavskaya

Single-seeded, easier to thin out. Dark and black-red, round or round-flat, rough. The head is small, flat, easily pulled out. The pulp is red, with a burgundy tinge. Excellent taste, medium ripening. Resistant to cercospora and black rot.

Zeppo F1

An early hybrid, realized in bunches. Smooth, beautiful, round with a small tail. Resistant to disease. Grown under cover and in the open field. Suitable for storage in late sowing.

Boltardi

Early maturing, Dutch selection, long-term storage. Rounded, dark red flesh and poorly pronounced rings, palatability.

Early

Early sub-varieties by maturity:

  1. Detroit;
  2. Wintering;
  3. Boltardi;
  4. Gribovskaya flat A-473;
  5. Detroit Duck Red;
  6. Egyptian flat;
  7. Egyptian flat Erly Vander;
  8. Leningradskaya rounded 221/17;
  9. Nochowski;
  10. Rounded dark red;
  11. Improved red ball;
  12. Skvirsky gift.

The best

Rounded, dark red or violet red, no light rings and coarse vascular fibrous bundles:

  • Bordeaux 237;
  • Gribovskaya flat A-473;
  • Don flat 367;
  • Egyptian flat;
  • Incomparable А-463;
  • Leningradskaya rounded 221/17;
  • Incomparable А-463;
  • One-sprout;
  • Podzimnyaya A-474;
  • Pushkinskaya flat K -1 8;
  • An early miracle;
  • Northern ball K-250;
  • Cold resistant 19.

Sweet

Consumers' favorite sub-varieties:

  1. Bordeaux 237;
  2. Bravo;
  3. Valent;
  4. Mona;
  5. Mulatto;
  6. Incomparable А-463;
  7. Pablo F1;
  8. Rocket F1;
  9. Cylinder.

We invite you to learn about other varieties of beets. On our website you will find a complete description of the popular Kestrel 1, the early Wodan 1 variety and the Boro variety brought from Holland to Russia.

For what and where is it used?

Used in canning and all types of processing, in the preparation of various dishes.

Benefits and harm to the body

First about how the vegetable is good for health:

  • Up to 10% sugars.
  • 4.5% protein.
  • Pectin.
  • Microelements.
  • Gland.
  • Iodine.
  • Calcium and Potassium.
  • Vitamins of group B and PP.
  • Betaine.
  • Minerals.
  • Bioflavonoids.

The juice is used for bronchitis and pneumonia, kidney disease, to lower blood pressure. Boiled for constipation and diabetes, fortifying, improving digestion and metabolism.

  • Source of vitamin C, copper and phosphorus, fights toxins.
  • Leaves contain vitamin A, roots vitamin C. Prevents the appearance or growth of malignant tumors.
  • Vitamin B9 prevents heart disease, promotes the production of hemoglobin and prevents the development of anemia, leukemia.
  • Folic acid provides anti-aging properties. Reduces fluid retention and the risk of obesity. Cleanses the kidneys, liver and blood, reduces acidity, stimulates the brain and eliminates toxins.
  • Betaine promotes the assimilation of proteins and lowering blood pressure, inhibits atherosclerosis, is present in the root vegetable and leaves, does not break down when heated.

Attention! Due to the content of oxalic acid, it is necessary to limit the consumption of people suffering from urolithiasis, metabolic disorders, kidney and bladder diseases.

We suggest you watch a video about how beets are useful for the body:

Step-by-step instructions for growing

The technology for growing root crops in the open field is as follows.

  1. Soil preparation.

    The planting site is prepared in the fall, sunny, open, with drainage. In an area where cucumbers, tomatoes or onions grew, but not carrots, cabbage, celery or garlic. Re-plant no earlier than 3-4 years later. Avoid clay soils and high humidity.

    Clean the plot of dead wood, leaves, roots, seeds. Lime acidic soils in two steps, in autumn and during spring processing. Fresh manure does not tolerate, before planting, add humus, rotted compost, add nitrogen and potassium fertilizers, superphosphate. Dig up the earth to the depth of the shovel. For peaty or sandy soils - boron at the rate of 1-2 g per 1 m2. For looseness, add sand or sawdust.

  2. Seed preparation.

    The seeds are sorted out. Germination is accelerated by soaking the seeds for 1 day in a solution of 1 liter of water: - 10 drops of energetic; - for 1 tsp. superphosphate; - for 1 tbsp. wood ash. After a day, they are washed and germinated in a damp cloth before planting.

  3. How should you plant seeds in spring?

    Do not thicken! With a one-line system, rows are 20 cm apart. The sowing depth is 2-3 cm. In even grooves, on light soils 4-5 cm. On a flat surface, double-line tapes are made. For varieties with an elongated root crop, the garden bed is dug 25 cm. The grooves are watered, the seeds are laid out every 10 cm and sprinkled with earth. Multi-sprouted seeds give 2 to 6 sprouts. Thinning after 2 leaves, and again after 4 leaves.

  4. Autumn landing (winter landing).

    In autumn, increase the rate by 25%. Sow at a temperature of -4 degrees. The soil is prepared in the same way, planting on a high bed, deepening by 4 cm. The seeds are not soaked, planting in dry ground. This method hardens the seeds, in spring there are good shoots, the beets ripen earlier, but they are not stored for long. The garden bed is mulched with straw, covered with snow. At a spring temperature of + 7-10 degrees, the mulch is removed.

Where and for how much can you buy seeds?

You can purchase inexpensively for the regions of Moscow, St. Petersburg in the online stores "Sady Rossii", seedspost.ru, semena-tut.ru, spb.regmarkets.ru and others, at a price of 16 rubles for a package of 2 years or from 35 rub. per package (in a package from 75 to 200 pcs. seeds).

  • Landing time.

    In the spring, they are sown later than carrots by 1-2 weeks, because seedlings are afraid of frost. Towards winter, in late October, early November, but cold-resistant varieties.

  • Choosing a landing site.

    The site must be drained. A place for winter sowing without blocking or flooding.

  • What should be the soil?

    In spring, they are planted on calcareous soil, neutralizing peaty soils. Before sowing, disinfect with boric acid, this will enrich them with boron.

  • Landing.

    Do not thicken the spring crops; in the fall, increase the rate by one quarter. Sowing on a one-line system, with row spacings. Planting according to a two-line tape scheme is possible. Seed consumption will be 70 - 100 kg. per 1 hectare. Sowing depth 2-3 cm.

  • Temperature.

    Seeds germinate at a temperature of about + 5 degrees, the optimum temperature is from + 22 degrees.

  • Watering.

    In hot dry weather - periodic watering. On depleted soils, more often and top dressing at least twice.

  • Top dressing.

    Top dressing is carried out after the appearance of the 4th leaf. Diluted in 10 liters of water 30-40 g of nitrophoska and 1 g of boric acid, then loosened.

  • Other measures for the care of the vegetable.

    During the growth of the row spacing, loosen at least twice to a depth of 10 cm, the next hilling to a depth of 12 cm. In cold weather, mulch with peat or humus.

  • Harvesting - when and how.

    Harvested selectively as it ripens. Winter storage in the second half of September. Dig it out carefully to avoid damage. After digging, the leaves are cut off, placed in boxes, sprinkled with sand. Domestic and foreign harvesters are mainly used for harvesting carrots, but with inferior quality and for harvesting beets.

  • Harvest storage.

    Store in a cellar at a temperature of 0 -2 degrees.

Diseases and pests

During the growing season, it can be attacked by pests: beet flea, mining moth, aphid, weevil, root eater. Diseases: phomosis, peronosporosis, cercosporosis.

Prevention of various problems

To control pests, dress the seeds before sowing, process aisles, destroy weeds. From aphids, plants are sprayed 3 times a day with an interval of 5 days with infusions of horse sorrel, dandelion roots and leaves, and onion husks. For cercosporosis or downy mildew, plants are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid. With a lack of boron (heart rot), borax is introduced into the soil.

Beetroot is a popular root vegetable that has come from time immemorial. Applying modern agricultural techniques, it gives a good harvest. This culture continues to amaze with new properties. Unique biologically active substances betaine and betanin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, strengthening capillaries; vitamin U, healing stomach ulcers, improving cholesterol metabolism.


Watch the video: Live 100 Years With Beet Juice - Beetroot Juice Health Benefits (January 2022).