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Interesting facts, description and application of cabbage

 Interesting facts, description and application of cabbage


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Cabbage is a vegetable crop that has been widely eaten and used for medicinal purposes since ancient times.

The history of cabbage cultivation by people goes back to ancient times. Descriptions of the cultivation of cabbage crops are found in Egyptian papyri.

And among the ancient Roman patricians, cabbage was a delicious dessert at all. This vegetable was brought to the territory of Ancient Russia by traders from Greece in the 9th century.

From the article you will learn everything about cabbage, read what varieties are there and see their photos.

Origin of name

Why was the cabbage called cabbage? The word "cabbage" comes from the merger of two Latin words borrowed by the ancient Slavs - "caputium" (cabbage) and "composita" (compound, compound). The round shape of the cabbage resembles a human head, so the Latin name is based on the word "caput" (head). In the ancient Russian chronicles, the word "composite" is used to refer to some vegetables with a large number of juicy leaves.

Botanical description of the plant

Is cabbage perennial or not? All types of cabbage are biennial plants, only Peking cabbage and cauliflower are annuals.

In addition, cabbage belongs to the dicotyledonous class of plants.

What kind of plant is this and what are the characteristics of the vegetable:

  • How many chromosomes does cabbage have? The cells of this plant contain 9 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 18).
  • Cabbage leaves are large, rounded, with large veins, forming a rosette.
  • What is the structure of the flower of this plant? Cabbage flowers are yellow or white, collected in an inflorescence in the form of a brush. Formula of cabbage flower: CH2 + 2L4T2 + 4P (2).
  • Fruits in the form of pods up to 15 cm long with small dark brown seeds.
  • The root system is powerful, branched.

A photo

Next, you can see a photo of the flowers and the head of the plant:





Does the vegetable bloom?

In the first year, young cabbage forms a small stem with leaves and this formation is called a head of cabbage. In the second year, long shoots up to 1.5 m with flowers grow. Cabbage blooms only in the second year of its life. Cabbage is usually grown through seedlings, and the head of cabbage is cut in the first year and eaten. Therefore, few people know what cabbage flowers look like.

Classification

What family of plants does the vegetable belong to? Cabbage belongs to the genus Cabbage (Latin Brassica) and belongs to the Cruciferae or Brassicaeae family. The plant is distributed mostly in Eurasia, North Africa and Asia. Cabbage is a cultivated plant with more than 50 species. About 10 species grow in Russia.

What crops is it compatible with?

Not all plants grow well in the same garden. Plants that grow well in the vicinity of cabbage: beets, potatoes, garlic, peas, beans, cucumber and radishes. It is better not to plant carrots and beans next to cabbage, but place them on a separate bed.

Biological features

This plant has the following features:

  1. Cabbage is cold resistant. Seeds germinate at a temperature of 2-3 C. The optimum temperature for growing is 16-18 ° C.

    Important! At temperatures above + 25 ° C, the heads of cabbage stop growing and shed their lower leaves.

  2. Cabbage is a light-loving plant, the slightest shading causes a strong elongation of the stem and weakens immunity to diseases. It is very important to create good lighting conditions, to plant seedlings at a great distance from each other, not to plant near trees.
  3. Cabbage needs a lot of moisture. The highest productivity of cabbage is provided with soil moisture content of 75-80%. Cabbage is especially sensitive to a lack of moisture after planting seedlings in open ground.
  4. Cabbage grows well on soils of various compositions, except for clay, peat, sandy and acidic soils, which contain a small amount of organic matter.

    The most favorable are loamy soils that retain water well.

  5. For a high yield, cabbage needs a lot of nutrients, especially nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. During the seedling period, cabbage needs nitrogen. During the period of head formation, cabbage consumes more potassium.

Benefit and harm

All types of cabbage contain a lot of nutrients. These are vitamins of various groups, macro- and microelements, minerals (read more about the chemical composition and KBZhU cabbage here). The benefits of eating this vegetable have been proven by nutritionists and doctors. Moreover, cabbage is shown not only raw, but also stewed and boiled.

Despite the full range of useful properties of cabbage, there are contraindications. Basically, they relate to various diseases.

List of diseases when cabbage will harm: all diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Special:

  • increased acidity of the stomach;
  • intestinal cramps;
  • ulcer;
  • kidney disease of all varieties;
  • high blood pressure;
  • period after operations;
  • with problems with the respiratory system.

When white cabbage is allowed, but with restrictions:

  • with strong belching;
  • with hypertension;
  • with diseases of the pancreas;
  • with diseases of the thyroid gland.
  1. Fetus. Despite the unconditional benefits of cabbage, the fruit can not always be eaten in case of intestinal irritation, kidney and liver problems. If health problems are regularly observed, then you can not eat cabbage in its pure, unprocessed form. This vegetable should not be abused, as cabbage promotes the secretion of gastric juice.
  2. Juice. Cabbage juice is indispensable for colds. It can be mixed with lingonberries. The brine is recommended for everyone who has vitamin deficiency. But cabbage juice is not recommended for people suffering from ulcers, colitis, kidney problems.
  3. Leaves. The leaves are recommended not only for consumption, but also as compresses. Applying a cabbage leaf with honey to the chest with lactostasis is considered effective in folk medicine (you can learn more about the use of cabbage with honey for coughs, migraines, fever, burns and bruises here). In general, during lactation, the use of cabbage should be limited, since it affects the work of the gastrointestinal tract, and how well the lactation process will proceed depends on its normal functioning. Read more about the use of cabbage leaves in traditional medicine in this material.

Read more about the indications and contraindications for eating white cabbage here.

As food for various animals

Cabbage can be fed to goats, sheep, cows. This vegetable is eaten with pleasure by rodents - rats, guinea pigs. Rabbits love her, for them it is a real delicacy. But cats and dogs rarely perceive cabbage as food. Although with meat and stewed, some pets eat it. Also, cats can sometimes afford to nibble on a cabbage leaf.

How and which animals can be given cabbage, read in a separate article.

What are the varieties?

Varieties of classic white cabbage differ mainly by different ripening periods, the size of the heads. When choosing a variety, you must first of all pay attention to the purpose of cabbage: to get early products and fresh food or for storage and fermentation.

Early ripe varieties of cabbage:

  • June;
  • "Kazachok";
  • "Malachites";
  • "Points";
  • "Transfer";
  • "Stakhanovka".

Mid-season:

  • "Belarus";
  • "Golden Hectare";
  • "Hope";
  • Sibirochka;
  • "Glory";
  • "Early Ripe".

Medium late varieties of cabbage:

  • "Krautkaiser";
  • Krautman;
  • Losinoostrovskaya;
  • "Gift";
  • Rusinovka;
  • "Harvest";
  • "The final".

Late varieties:

  • "Amager";
  • "Kolobok";
  • "Creumont";
  • "Lezhky";
  • "Kharkovskaya winter";
  • "Extra".

Growing

When growing cabbage, you need to pay attention to a number of circumstances:

  1. Before planting, the seeds must be placed in boiling water and then dried.
  2. They need to be planted in a special soil in a box.
  3. When the seedlings are 20 days old, transplant each plant into a separate container. Small seedling cups with a diameter of 5 and a height of 6 cm are suitable.
  4. Young cabbage is planted in open ground from April 25 to May 5.
  5. Cabbage needs constant and abundant watering. If it's too hot and dry outside, water two or three times a day.
  6. In wet weather, slugs become the main pest of cabbage. They can be dealt with with chemicals and folk remedies.

List of dishes that can be prepared

You can cook a lot of healthy and tasty dishes from ordinary cabbage.

  1. Soups:
    • vegetable;
    • cabbage soup;
    • borscht;
    • with dumplings;
    • with pasta and stew;
    • puree soup.
  2. Stews:
    • cabbage with meat;
    • with chicken;
    • with canned food;
    • with zucchini;
    • with carrots and tomatoes.
  3. Pies: small pies with cabbage or big "skits".
  4. Salads:
    • vegetable;
    • with meat and peas;
    • the vinaigrette.

Cabbage is good as a side dish; it is useful sauerkraut along with lingonberries. Cabbage soup is healthy and suitable as food for children.

During pregnancy

You need to carefully use this vegetable during pregnancy, especially raw. Cabbage can cause problems with the work of the gastrointestinal tract, which is not at all useful for pregnant women. It is best to eat boiled cabbage, steamed without adding salt and spices.

We talked more about whether it is possible to eat cabbage during pregnancy here.

When breastfeeding

White cabbage is one of those vegetables that are not recommended for breastfeeding. This is a difficult product for a baby's still fragile digestion, especially in the first two to three months of lactation. Such cabbage, when breastfeeding, often causes colic and increased gas production.

Cabbage for children

Children can have cabbage in any form. It is important to maintain a balance with other vegetables. The best, of course, is the preparation of vegetable soups, mashed potatoes and stews. Also children will also benefit from cabbage as part of fresh salads.

You can find out more about the nuances of introducing cabbage into a child's diet in this article.

Myths and facts

  1. If there is cabbage, then the breasts will be larger. Eating cabbage cannot affect breast size, because the size of the breast is genetically laid down. But cabbage is really good for breast health (does cabbage grow breasts?).
  2. Cabbage has more calcium than milk. The coefficient of absorption of calcium by the human body from dairy products is 32%, from cabbage can reach 65%.
  3. Cabbage contains anti-cancer agents. Cabbage can be a cancer prevention tool because contains glucocinolates, which promote the appearance of bioactive compounds that stimulate a family of enzymes that remove carcinogens.

Conclusion

Cabbage is the most popular vegetable in Russia, due to its beneficial properties, unpretentiousness during cultivation and the ability to retain vitamins during long-term storage.


Watch the video: Low Carb Homemade Cabbage Veggie Soup-- Tasty! Diabetic Friendly! (May 2022).


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