Pestle - a small animal of the hamster family.
Inhabits the forest-steppe area. In drought it migrates to moist soil.
Can go without water for a long time.
It eats shoots, sprouts, young leaves, planting cereals and cereals.
The pestle belongs to the Cricetidae family of the Rodentia order. The pestle is very close to lemmings.
It grows in length up to 22 cm... The length of the tail reaches 2-3 cm.The color of the coat, depending on the subspecies, is brown-amber or sand shade... Along the spine has dark stripes.
The eyes of the animal are small, brown or black. The skull is wide, convex, with a protruding brain capsule.
The ears are short, the ear membranes are swollen. The mastoid bones are enlarged, protruding in the lateral part of the occiput. Palatine grooves are longitudinal. The bony palate is deep, even. The molars have sharp teeth.
The steppe lemongrass in the karyotype has 54 chromosomes. A distinctive feature is the small body length reaching 9-14 cm, and monophonic dark coloration with a line along the spine.
The yellow pestle can be up to 20 cm long... Has a solid shade of fur without longitudinal stripes.
A distinctive feature is third fingerwhich is much longer than the fourth.
You can see the features of the appearance of the pestle in the photo:
This representative of the flora is distributed in the forest-steppe area. The animal can be found in Belarus, Ukraine, central Europe, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, China, Korea.
In the Russian Federation, it is common in the Dnieper region, the Volga region, central Siberia, Altai, Khakassia. The animal loves the steppes of the Voronezh, Rostov, Nizhny Novgorod regions.
Dislikes grasses and areas with shrubs with a powerful root system... Prefers arable land, various pastures, fallow soils, embankments, roadsides. In mountainous terrain, it lives at an altitude of 2700-2900 meters above sea level.
Important! Pies can go without water for a long time. But in hot weather, they go to low relief areas. In drought, the animals prefer interfluves, lake pits, valleys with moist soil.
Little pies, and yellow, and steppe, like lemmings, live in colonies... In early spring, they pair up and go out to dig their own burrows.
Animals breed from the onset of spring to mid-autumn. In one season, the female brings 6 litters 4-6 cubs in everyone. Depending on the climate, habitat, the number of predators, pestles either flood the steppes, or vice versa, disappear completely.
Pregnant females show tenderness and anxiety by caring for each other. Males have nothing to do with childbirth and caring for babies. Only females raise cubs.
Newborn pies are completely helpless. Babies are born blind. The eyes only open after 1.5-2 weeks. On the 18-20th day, they become completely independent.
After 36-46 days are considered full mature and can begin to bear offspring.
Important! Life expectancy in the wild is up to 1 year. At home, with good care, animals can live for 1.5-2 years.
There is almost no need for a moistened feed. They feed on wormwood and cereals... They can eat tubers of plants, bulbs, grass. Sometimes large mosquitoes, locusts, grasshoppers can become food for pestle.
The animal is active around the clock. Leads both nocturnal and diurnal. The life of pestles is semi-underground... Rodents come to the surface only at night or in the evening.
During periods of high numbers of animals can make active mass migrations... The depth of underground passages is 35-100 cm. Tunnels of other pests - moles, ferrets, and shrews - can be used.
They can dwell in crevices. Their main burrow always connects with temporary paths. In winter, pestles can burrow under a layer of snow.
Distinctive features from other rodents:
- The main distinguishing feature of pestles is the ability to migrate over long distances;
- They differ from other rodents by their characteristic line along the spine;
- Unlike other rodents, they tolerate a lack of water. Moistened feed can be dispensed with;
- They do not like to dig holes. Therefore, tunnels of other pests are used;
- In winter they hibernate.
Harm to the human farmer and how to fight
This mammal is the main pest of agriculture.
Can eat pastures, shoots, crops of cereals. Destroys green crops, grass, food supplies in hangars and basements.
Eats food equal to its own weight in 24 hours.
The animal is a carrier of the causative agent of tularemia.
The most common way to fight pestles is ultrasound... Innovative technologies easily scare away animals over long distances. Wherein devices do not harm rodents.
The developers took as a basis a humane method of getting rid of pests. The design regenerates frequency waves and ultrasound. Thanks to this effect, an atmosphere of discomfort for pies is created.
Important! Ultrasound does not affect human health. It is neither perceptible nor audible to human hearing.
Toxins and Poisons... Cereals, legumes, and cereals are sprayed with toxic substances. Food is left in barns, into which rodents make their way.
Eating poisoned food, the animal's metabolism changes greatly. There are fast-acting and slow-acting poisons. In the second option the extinction of pestles occurs within 5-14 days.
Mousetrap - the oldest way to get rid of pestles. Mousetraps with bait are less effective. In most cases, they remain empty, and the animals continue to eat the crop.
New developments include closed body designs with multiple compartments. If the pestle gets inside, the device emits an electrical discharge... A powerful impulse hits the pest in a few seconds.
Pestle can cause irreparable damage to agricultural land... Destroys crops, pastures, bins.
Into the wild lives no more than 1 year... It is attacked by predators. Inhabits colonies. In winter, it hibernates.
Video about how pestlings live in captivity: