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Tomatoes are quite thermophilic plants, well grown outdoors in the southern regions. In the Urals, it is also possible to get a rich and high-quality crop, it is enough to create suitable greenhouse conditions. The local climate allows you to get the first harvest in July.
In this article, we will talk about how to choose the right tomato varieties, taking into account the climatic characteristics of a given region.
You will learn how to prepare a greenhouse, plant tomatoes in it and arrange optimal conditions for them. Let's talk about the many subtleties that allow you to get a good harvest.
Is it possible to grow tomatoes: pros and cons, difficulties, features
Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, subject to certain rules, is a fairly easy and productive process, and has many advantages. Benefits over outdoor cultivation:
- Planting can begin as early as April for an earlier harvest.
- The greenhouse protects tomatoes from bad weather conditions.
- There is no need to water the plants frequently.
- Greenhouse conditions provide tomatoes with excellent health and high yields.
- Greenhouse tomatoes, in comparison with ground tomatoes, are stored longer.
Of course, greenhouse tomatoes have several small drawbacks - they are slightly inferior in taste to tomatoes grown in the open field, and also, due to the necessary arrangement of the greenhouse, their cost increases.
Which varieties should you choose?
The most popular varieties in the Urals are:
"Bull's heart" is referred to as mid-season tomato varieties. The plant has a strong stem and reaches a height of up to 2 meters; it is necessary to form a bush in 1-2 stems.
With proper care, each bush is capable of producing up to 10 kg of harvest. Fruits weigh up to 500 g.
"Goldfish" refers to the mid-late indeterminate varieties. The bushes are very tall, from 2 meters and more; formation is necessary. Fruits reach a mass of 100 g.
Also grown varieties "White filling", "Ground mushroom", "Kievskie", "La-la-fa F1", "Siberian early ripening", "Peremoga", "Rosemary F1" and some others.
Growing greenhouse tomatoes requires careful preparation and care at every stage of growing.
How to prepare the place?
Before transplanting seedlings the greenhouse must be prepared: the room must be rinsed, disinfected and well ventilated. Then the beds are prepared - small holes are made for the seedlings. Each hole is watered abundantly with water.
The most favorable for tomatoes is a mixture of sod land, humus and peat; a 3: 2 mixture of garden soil and sawdust is also suitable. For additional feeding, each bucket of soil mixture is fertilized with ash (0.5 l) and superphosphate (3 matchboxes) and mixed thoroughly.
Advice. You can additionally treat the soil with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, which guarantees the almost complete destruction of pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases.
The seeds are placed in a 5% sodium chloride solution; when strong and large seeds have settled at the bottom, they are taken out and slightly dried.
The prepared seeds, in order to avoid some diseases, are hardened by soaking for 10 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g / 100 ml of water), after which they are thoroughly washed and slightly dried again.
Immediately before sowing, it is advisable to soak the seeds in warm water for 2 days, then keep them in the freezer for another 3 days at a temperature of about -3 ° C. This procedure will increase the immunity of plants to the low temperatures of the Urals. Seeds hardened by this method are planted in boxes 5-6 cm high.
After sowing, the seeds are watered with warm water and covered with foil or glass. It is necessary to water the seeds daily before germination (usually up to 4-5 days). During the week, boxes with seedlings must be kept at a daytime temperature of 12-15 ° C and a night temperature of 6-8 ° C, then the temperature is raised to 18-20 ° C and 10-12 ° C, respectively.
The pick must be carried out after the appearance of the second leaf on the plant.
- Plants are transplanted into cups with soil, but for the climate of the Urals it is better to use peat pots; this will accelerate fruit ripening up to 2 weeks. The pots should be filled with the same soil mixture as when planting seeds, leaving 5-6 cm of stock.
- After 10 days, you need to add a little earth, after another 10 days, fill the pots completely.
- When picking, 2 seedlings are planted in each pot; after 15-20 days, the weakest is removed by cutting at the very border of the root.
Important! Young seedlings must be fed with phosphorus fertilizer - 5-7 grains of superphosphate and 2-3 grains of nitrophoska are placed in each pot; the earth is poured from above and the plant is watered.
Watering and feeding
Seedlings of tomatoes do not require frequent and abundant watering - only dry soil should be watered. The water should be settled and have a temperature of 25-30 ° C. You need to feed the seedlings for the first time 1.5-2 weeks after the pick, then only when necessary.
You can fertilize with "Azofoska" fertilizer or infusion of ash: 1 glass of ash per 10 liters of water, water the seedlings at the root.
Step-by-step instructions: when and how to transplant?
The optimal time for transplanting plants into the greenhouse is 1.5 months after germination. The tallest tomato bushes are usually planted just below the rest, after removing the lower leaves. Before planting tomatoes in the greenhouse, they must be well watered.
It is recommended to install the garter device near the holes before planting the plants, so as not to damage the roots in the future. A small handful of humus or a mixture of wood ash (a handful) with a teaspoon of superphosphate is placed in the prepared holes (10-15 cm in diameter), then each hole is filled with 2 liters of a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Tomatoes are transplanted into the greenhouse along with an earthen clod. The hole is filled with water, and a bush is placed in the resulting mud. Overgrown seedlings are planted at an angle and a part of the stem is sprinkled with earth.
The soil around the planted bush needs to be compacted a little and lightly sprinkled with soil. For the prevention of phytophthora, plants are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid (100 g / 10 l of water) or copper chloride (40 g / 10 l of water).
After a week, you need to loosen the soil a little, to provide oxygen to the roots.
The main stages of cultivation are proper care throughout the growing season:
- Plants should be watered for the first time 5-6 days after transplanting into the greenhouse with warm water (20 ° C). It is recommended to water at the root, in the morning, every 4-5 days; during the flowering period of tomatoes, they can be watered more abundantly.
- Tomatoes should be fed about 3-4 times over the summer:
- the first time after 1.5-2 weeks, after 10 days;
- the second (1 tsp potassium sulfate and 1 tbsp fertilizer diluted in water; consumption 5 l / m²);
- the third feeding is carried out about 2 weeks after the second - the bushes are watered with a solution of ash and superphosphate (2 tablespoons and 1 tsp per 10 liters of water, consumption 7l / m²);
- the fourth feeding is done when the tomatoes begin to bear fruit abundantly - 1 tsp. sodium humate and 2 tablespoons of superphosphate per 10 liters of water, consumption 5 l / m².
- It is necessary to ventilate 2 hours after each watering. In the heat, the doors and vents should be constantly open.
- Pollination has to be done independently. On a sunny day, you need to walk along the rows and slightly shake the bushes with flowers, then slightly moisten the soil and lightly spray the flowers.
The necessary conditions
In order for the harvest to be of high quality and rich, it is necessary to observe certain conditions in the greenhouse - temperature, humidity, lighting.
Air humidity in the greenhouse should be kept within 45-65%. But during abundant watering when setting fruits, ventilation may not be enough; in this case, it is recommended to water the tomatoes through plastic bottles. They cut off the bottom and set it with the neck down near each bush.
Important! The air temperature in the greenhouse should not exceed + 25 ° С, the soil temperature - + 10 ° С.
There are several ways to maintain the optimum temperature.
To lower the temperature:
- Use of protective reflective film.
- Spraying the outer walls of the greenhouse with a solution of chalk and water (1: 5).
- Watering plants in the early morning.
- In hot weather, the greenhouse can be covered with a fabric material, a reed mat.
- Installation of an electric fan.
- Insulation of the greenhouse with additional foil, up to the air gap above the walls.
- An additional enclosing structure inside the greenhouse is a wooden or metal frame covered with foil.
- Mulching the soil.
Such techniques allow you to regulate the temperature within + - 4-5 degrees.
A week after disembarking, the lower stepsons are removed on the bushes; repeat the procedure every 10 days. When formed into 2 stems, 1 stepson is left under the first flower brush. With 3 stems, in addition to the "flower" stepson, one more, the strongest, is left.
You can provide natural light by planting rows from north to south. But if natural lighting is not enough, you will have to resort to artificial light.
At an early stage of plant development, it is recommended to maintain lighting for up to 20 hours, gradually reducing it to 12.
Important! Lighting around the clock is highly discouraged as it can kill plants.
Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse can give a fairly rich harvest even in the harsh Ural climate - up to 15 kg / m². But since greenhouse tomatoes require special conditions and regular care, the cost of the crop can be quite high. It is possible to reduce the cost by increasing the area of the greenhouse; the costs will remain the same, but the amount of the crop will be higher.
Tomatoes are the most popular crop in all regions and can be grown in greenhouses in all climates. It is enough to properly equip the place and provide proper care.
Next, you can watch a video on how to grow tomatoes in the Urals in a greenhouse: