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Tomatoes are a fairly popular crop in our country. And there are many ways to grow it, including different places of growth.
So seedlings for planting can be grown both at home and in a greenhouse, which will be discussed in this article.
This method is very different from planting a small amount of seeds in your apartment: it has its own characteristics of growth, and its own times and terms, which depend on several factors.
Our article will tell you when and how to sow tomato seeds to get seedlings in greenhouse structures of various types, including polycarbonate. Further on all this in more detail.
Features of growing tomatoes in greenhouses
Tomato seedlings are planted in a greenhouse only when the soil has warmed up well enough and frost is no longer threatened (approximately May).
The time of planting tomatoes for seedlings depends on the technical characteristics of the existing greenhouse.:
- heated and glazed landing in the last days of April;
- greenhouse with additional film cover or polycarbonate - from 6 to 10 May;
- film greenhouse in the open field - starting from mid-May.
There is no exact date for planting tomatoes in a greenhouse.... It is imperative to take into account the climatic conditions and the characteristics of the region in which the landing is planned.
What affects the sowing time?
Region and climate
How much tomatoes are accepted depends on the region and its climatic conditions. Most often, tomato seeds are sown two months before the date of planting in the ground. If the planting of tomatoes in a greenhouse in this region will be carried out in the middle of May, then you need to sow seeds in the middle or closer to the end of March. In southern regions with a warm climate, the date may shift to early February.
In general, the experience of gardeners shows that the warmer the climate, the earlier the seeds can be sown.
Consider the climatic conditions of your region before planting tomatoes.... You can look at the weather statistics for recent years to understand when the optimal time to plant seeds for seedlings.
Each variety has its own ripening time, so it is important to take this factor into account when planting seeds.
Basic recommendations for sowing by varieties:
- Tall tomatoes (the recommended sowing time is February 20-March 10.
- Early to mid-season varieties (March 10-22).
- Cherry tomatoes, ultra-early varieties (April 8-15).
- Late ripening large tomatoes (end of February).
It is not recommended to rely only on the terms indicated on the packaging. The manufacturer may rely on Central European standards that are not relevant for the region you need.
If you focus on the growing season, then the sowing time can be calculated independently. For example, early and hybrid varieties have a growing season of 100 days. Here you also need to add the time it takes for the sprout to rise - about a week. We also add the seedling survival time - three days. The total is 110 days. Now you just need to count 110 days from the expected harvest date and start sowing the seeds.
The full moon and the waning moon are the most unfavorable phases for planting tomato seeds. It is believed that at this time the moon grows old and weak, and tomatoes can grow "in the ground", as a result there will be a strong root, but a weak stem. This is good for root vegetables, but not for tomatoes.
The growing moon-phase, when the plant is actively stretching up... The duration of the period is approximately 11 days. This time before the full moon is the best time for planting tomato seeds.
The planting method does not affect the planting time of tomato seeds. The main thing to consider is the climatic factors of the region in which you plan to land.
The time interval between planting seeds and planting plants in the greenhouse
75 days for late and 65 days for early varieties - this period is considered necessary after sowing tomato seeds. If you sowed seeds in early March, then planting seedlings in a greenhouse should be done in mid-May.
When is the best time to sow seeds in the main regions of Russia?
The main criterion that must be taken into account when planting tomatoes in a greenhouse is the temperature of the air and soil in the region. The air should be at least +18 degrees during the day, and the soil should not be below +13 degrees. AND it is very important to pay attention to the temperature at night... When the sun can warm up the greenhouse during the day so that at night the temperature in it remains at least +10 degrees, then the time has come for planting tomatoes in the greenhouse.
Depending on the region of the country, the landing time differs markedly, but there is always a main indicator that you should rely on - the average daily air temperature is not lower than +13 degrees.
Seeds should be planted 2-2.5 months earlier.
Planting time of tomato seeds in different regions of Russia:
- Krasnodar Territory and southern part of Russia - March 1-5.
- Moscow region and the middle lane - March 5-10.
- Leningrad Region - March 15-20.
- Urals and Siberia - end of March-beginning of April.
So, for central Russia, the approximate dates are mid-March. These dates shift to one side or the other by 10-15 days, depending on how far south or north your region is.
How is the procedure performed?
First of all, you need to prepare the seeds, then planting... Seed tomatoes are planted in different containers. These can be cassettes, peat tablets or cups, individual pots or boxes.
Peat tablets and cups are good because you can do without picking; pallet cassettes are convenient for bottom irrigation; most summer residents use wooden or plastic boxes to save space.
- It is enough to take boxes 10 cm high, fill them with prepared soil by 2/3, moisten it with warm, clean and soft water. In the ground, grooves are made with a depth of 1–1.5 cm at a distance of 3–4 cm from each other.
- Next, you need to timely and carefully look after the seedlings: water, provide the right amount of light, sometimes loosen the aisles, regulate the air temperature.
- Further picking. When the third true leaf appears on the plants, they are dived into separate cups with a volume of at least 0.5 liters. The dishes are filled with the same soil as for sowing, moistened, a depression is made in the middle, and the plant is placed. Some growers shorten the central root at the same time, but others consider this unnecessary, since the root is still injured during transplantation.
Before planting tomato seedlings in open ground, temperature requirements must be taken into account.which were given above, focusing on the weather conditions in your region. It is also recommended to take into account the lunar calendar.