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Your own greenhouse on the site is a good opportunity to provide yourself with early vegetables and high-quality seedlings of a wide variety of crops. Such a structure can be made in a matter of hours., due to the simplicity of design and compact size.
Use of greenhouses
There are greenhouses in most household farms, many install them in their dachas. For almost every gardener, such a design is one of the most important attributes of the site.
If the territory is small, the greenhouse can be arranged right next to the wall of the house on the sunny side... When choosing a place, you need to consider not only it illumination, but also wind protection, risks flooding and rainwater erosion, soil quality.
A list of the main crops that can be grown in greenhouses:
- onions for herbs;
- salad turnip;
- early cabbage;
- parsley and dill;
- early tomatoes;
- a variety of ornamental plants.
Cold-resistant crops can be sown directly into prepared greenhouse soil, but tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers and others heat-loving species must be planted with seedlings... To do this, their seeds are first germinated indoors using special cassettes or boxes.
When transplanting plants into a greenhouse, it is very important prevent thickening of landings, because in cramped conditions, the stems stretch out, lose strength, and are more likely to be exposed to diseases. Should be considered and terms of landing in open ground: overgrown seedlings shade other crops, complicate plant care, take root less well.
For the same reason for greenhouses, it is not recommended to choose climbing and tall species... For example, in order to get an early harvest of cucumbers, it is better to give preference to bushy and weakly braided self-pollinated varieties that do not need a lot of space and do not require a garter.
Advantages and disadvantages
Film-coated greenhouses have a number of advantages:
- the construction of such a structure requires minimum costs, since the film is one of the cheapest materials, and the frame can be assembled from wooden bars, fittings, metal pipes unnecessary in the household;
- to stretch and secure the film, it is not necessary to have special skills;
- this coverage is absolutely safely in operation, does not need special care;
- film greenhouse is lightweight, so it can be installed anywhere and does not require a solid foundation;
- the film is excellent transmits sunlight.
You can assemble and install a greenhouse alone with just in a few hours... If necessary, the structure can be easily moved to another location at the end of the season, and just as easy to dismantle... For plant care and airing, the cover is simply tucked up on one side or folded up the frame.
There are film greenhouses and separate limitations:
- film ineffective in severe frosts and prolonged cold snaps, therefore, the greenhouse is used only in the warm season;
- this coverage must be removed from the frame for the winter and completely change after 2-3 seasons;
- on bright sunny days in tightly closed greenhouses occurs overheating of plantsfrom which they can die. To avoid this, you should promptly open the greenhouse for airing or shade the film from above;
- poorly fixed coating on the frame will blow with the wind.
Film type greenhouse device
Despite the simplicity of the design, the device of a greenhouse with a film coating has its own secrets... It is very important to be correct select the material for the frame and correctly fix the filmto avoid damage. The simplest option is polypropylene pipes, which are easily bent into arcs, keep their shape well and do not fray the coating. The ends of the pipes can be pushed into the ground, but it will be more reliable to fix them on a frame made of boards.
Important! To prevent the tunnel-type greenhouse from shifting under wind loads, vertical supports made of beams are installed under the extreme arcs. The lower part of the beams is driven into the ground, and in the upper, for the convenience of fastening, a recess is cut out along the diameter of the tube.
Timber frames are stronger and more stable, but without special processing, they do not last very long. If the choice fell on wood, you should take care of the purchase in advance protective impregnation or paint.
In addition, all elements of the frame must be carefully sandedto avoid chafing the film at the attachment points.
In the presence of fittings, steel angles or pipes you can make a frame from them, but such a greenhouse should be immediately installed in a permanent place or made collapsible. It should be noted that metal, unlike wood and plastic, gets very hot under the sun and heats up the film, which leads to premature deterioration of the coating.
In addition, the rough surface contributes to abrasion of the film at the contact points... Both problems can be solved very simply: rubber is put on over the metal (hose pieces, plastic tubes) and painted white. Rubber and plastic do not tear polyethylene, and the white color reduces the heating of the elements by almost half.
To make the greenhouse stronger, you should install additional spacers at the corners of the structure and stiffening rib from each side. If the structure is tall and long, you can put several vertical supports from a bar inside. Some gardeners prefer to strengthen the greenhouses with wire ties, pulling it between the frame and pegs driven into the ground.
How is the film fixed on greenhouses and hotbeds? Having dealt with the frame, you should take care of ways of fixing the film. In small greenhouses, she just pounces on top and is fixed around the perimeter with something heavy, for example, crushed by stones, boards, bricks. For larger structures this method is completely inappropriate. There are several options for fixing the cover:
- glazing beads or wooden slats and nails;
- furniture stapler;
- special fixing profiles;
- plastic clips of various diameters.
Fixing the film with glazing beads and nails does not require much effort, but the quality of such fastening decreases markedly by the end of the season. The tree dries up in the sun, gaps appear between the frame and the film, the coating only holds on nails. Two or three windy days are enough for the polyethylene to begin to break off. Similar problems arise and when fixed with staples: Over time, tears appear at the attachment points and the film has to be changed.
Factory fixing profiles allow you to quickly and efficiently fix the coating on the frame. They are suitable for both straight and curved sections, therefore they are often used in the manufacture of arch-type greenhouses.
It is quite easy to work with them, and the only drawback is the high cost of fasteners.
The most convenient and practical option for fixing the film when installing with your own hands is plastic clips for a greenhouse.
They differ in diameter and length, are highly resistant to temperature effects, and serve for at least 5 years. If necessary, the clips can be cut into pieces 2 cm wide.
Important! Since the clips have a round cross-section, the frame must be made of reinforcement or pipes, they are not suitable for structures made of wooden beams and metal corners.
The fastening process is very simple: the clips are immersed in hot water for 1-2 minutes, then the film is applied to the pipe and fasteners are put on, gently pressing them over the entire surface. For 1 running meter, 4-6 clips are required with a length of 8 to 15 cm, and at least 20 pieces with a length of 4 cm.
How to make greenhouses and greenhouses under the film with your own hands: consider a photo and step-by-step instructions? First you need to decide on the size of the greenhouse and choose the optimal place for it... In the absence of experience, you should not immediately occupy a large area, it is better to add it later. By the size of the future greenhouse prepare the site: it should be located from east to west, be illuminated by the sun for most of the day, and be protected from the wind. The selected area is cleaned and leveled, the fertile soil layer is removed and set aside.
Now it is necessary pick up material, prepare tools for work... The easiest way to do it yourself arch-type greenhouse made of PVC pipes, film and reinforced with a wooden frame... During the construction process, you will need:
- 4 boards with a section of 40x200 mm;
- reinforcing bars 70 cm long;
- PVC pipes;
- metal pipe fittings;
- dense plastic film;
- nails, screws and screwdriver.
Step 1. The boards are impregnated with an antiseptic and air-dried. Further knock down a rectangular box the size of the future greenhouse and install it on a prepared site.
Step 2. From the inside at the corners of the box hammer metal rods into the ground, which will provide additional strength to the base.
Step 3. Along the length of the box from the outside drive in reinforcement every half a meter... The rods must be buried not less than 30 cm... On the opposite side, do the same, placing the rods parallel to each other.
Step 4. The pipes are cut so that pieces of the same length are formed, after which their ends are put on the reinforcement protruding from the ground. Should turn out even parallel arcs above the box.
Step 5. Take metal fasteners and fix pipes to boards using self-tapping screws and a screwdriver.
Step 6. The inside of the box is filled with a layer of organic matter, then a layer of dry leaves or rotted straw is laid out, and fertile soil is poured on top with a layer of about 10-12 cm. Now you can cover the greenhouse.
Step 7. Unwind the film and pull it on top of the arcs. On both sides the film should hang down to the ground... With clips the coating is fixed on each arcwhile trying to maintain the same tension on the material. Bottom edge of the film around the entire perimeter sprinkle with earth or press down with boards.
On this, the construction is considered complete. It will be possible to start sowing after the soil inside warms up enough.
So, with minimal cost, you can make a comfortable greenhouse on your personal plot. Depending on the type of material (you can make a greenhouse with your own hands from a covering material), the assembly methods are slightly different, but the main steps remain the same. Subject to technology, the greenhouse will last more than one year.providing their owners with environmentally friendly products.
You can also make greenhouses with your own hands: from polycarbonate, a mini-greenhouse, from PVC and polypropylene pipes, from old window frames, "butterfly", "snowdrop" and even a winter greenhouse, or buy ready-made ones: "Agronomist", a portable mini greenhouse , "Zucchini", "Cabriolet", "Fazenda", "Snowdrop", eco greenhouse "Dachny", "Khlebnitsa", "Novator", "Snail", "Dayas", "Gherkin", "Accordion".
A little more about greenhouses under the film, made with your own hands, you can learn from the video: