Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse - a good option business for experienced gardeners. By choosing the right varieties and investing in equipment, you can collect good harvests several times a year.
Demand for quality tomatoes high, they can be offered to retail chains and catering establishments, as well as sold through their own points in the market.
Ideal greenhouse for tomatoes
Summer greenhouses or hotbeds are often installed on personal plots. They are suitable for protecting plants during frosts, accelerate fruiting, allow you to grow especially thermophilic varieties. Such greenhouses can be built on a wooden or metal frame and covered with foil. The greenhouse requires annual renovation, but it is quite cheap. Suitable only for seasonal cultivation in soil.
For year-round cultivation of tomatoes capital buildings are neededequipped with a heating system. Such greenhouses are erected on a solid metal frame with an anti-corrosion coating. Glass or polycarbonate is used as a coating.
The latter is suitable for arched greenhouses, sheets can be bent and cut without fear of damage. In regions with cold climates double glazing recommended... The air between the layers of glass or polycarbonate creates a thermos effect, which helps to reduce heating costs.
For year-round cultivation, a greenhouse with a pitched roof is more convenient. Sizes vary from 100 to 500 sq. m... Industrial greenhouses are even larger, with an average size of about 1000 sq. m.
Such structures imply overhead cultivation, hydroponically or aeroponically... A significant drawback of tomatoes grown in a nutrient solution is the recognizable watery taste and the absence of a characteristic aroma.
An ideal tomato greenhouse should be tall enough. The north wall can be laid out with cinder blocks or timber. A blank wall will protect the landings from the wind and will help keep warm. The preferred design is with a pitched roof, on which snow does not linger.
Pros and cons of business
Growing tomatoes indoors has many advantages... Among them:
- high demand for tomatoes, increasing in the autumn-winter season;
- heated greenhouses allow for several harvests per year;
- there are many varieties designed specifically for greenhouses;
- tomato stored long enoughthat minimizes losses;
- the harvested crop can be sold independently, through outlets on the market or on the Internet, as well as sold through retail chains, catering and wholesale buyers.
Despite the good prospects for entrepreneurs, business has some drawbacks.
Among the most significant:
- high costs of heating the greenhouse in the cold season;
- growing tomatoes on an industrial scale should only be done by people with experience in plant growing;
- for work with retail registration of a legal entity is required and obtaining a veterinary certificate for products;
- in the summer, competition from the owners of outdoor tomato growers increases.
Choosing a variety for closed ground
In the greenhouse, it is preferable to grow hybrids specially designed for indoor use. It is better to choose tall, branched varieties. On such a bush many fruits ripen at the same time, which increases the productivity of greenhouses. Tall bushes can be combined with smaller ones planted around the perimeter. This arrangement will allow optimal use of the scarce space.
For indoor use, both early and late varieties are suitable. In the middle lane, it is not recommended to plant especially sweet hybrids of southern selection, they are very sensitive to temperature fluctuations and can be affected by pests.
Specialists recommend choosing hybrids, zoned for a specific region. The varieties of Russian selection, as well as American, Dutch and Polish tomatoes, have proven themselves very well.
When choosing the right variety, it is worth considering:
- Yield... Multiple varieties will significantly increase income.
- Fruit ripening time... The shorter the growing season, the more profitable the business.
- Disease resistance... The best hybrids are not attacked by pests and do not require constant insecticide treatment.
- Taste qualities of tomatoes... Consumers prefer fleshy fruits with a bright sweetish taste and pronounced aroma.
- Fruit size and color... Medium-sized tomatoes with a deep red, pink or yellow color are in great demand among buyers.
- It is advisable to choose varieties with fruits that tolerate storage and transportation well.
Among the most popular, industrial varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses can be noted:
- Early and mid-season varieties: Gift, Aksinya, Cherry, Evpator, Kostroma. Palenque.
- Hybrids with a shortened growing season: Verlioka, Rhapsody, Caspar, Sprinter, Etude, Farmer.
- Fruits with a particularly intense taste: Honey Spas, Pink Honey, Orange King, Asteroid, Lady, Ballerina.
Other tomato varieties recommended for greenhouses presented on our website: Chocolate, Kishmish, Yellow Pear, Domes of Russia, Pride of Siberia, Pink Impression, Novichok, Wonder of the World, President 2, De Barao Giant, Meaty handsome.
Having chosen the right variety, it is worth concentrating on it. Industrial cultivation of tomatoes in a greenhouse not focused on experimentation, but to increase yields. Professionals usually grow no more than 2-3 types of tomatoes at a time.
In small farm greenhouses, it is better to grow tomatoes in soil. Their taste is much higher, which makes it possible to sell products at a good mark-up.
Greenhouse must be equipped with a ventilation system and automatic drip irrigation. Tomatoes are sensitive to moisture levels, but they do not like stagnant water in the soil. On hot days, shading is required using special curtains that cover the south side of the greenhouse.
The heating system can be different. Industrial greenhouses heated with built-in boilers and pipes laid underground. Farm structures can be heated with air heaters, stove stoves and even bonfires. The use of biofuels from a mixture of rotted manure and straw will also help.
To maintain the desired microclimate in winter, open tanks with diluted mullein are installed in the greenhouse. Vapors activate the process of photosynthesis necessary for good fruiting.
Tomatoes in a greenhouse need light, nutritious soil, in which complex mineral fertilizers are regularly applied. Top dressing from a mixture of superphosphate, potassium salt and ammonium nitrate paid every two weeks... Lack of nutrients slows down the formation of ovaries and fruit ripening.
How to calculate profitability?
Before you start growing tomatoes, it is important to draw up a detailed business plan... It will help you correctly calculate the profitability of your future business and accurately take into account all the upcoming costs. The consumable part includes:
- lease or purchase of a plot of land;
- construction and equipping of a greenhouse;
- purchase of seeds or seedlings;
- purchase of fertilizers and agricultural implements;
- registration of a legal entity and registration of product certificates;
- transportation of finished products to the point of sale.
The profit depends on the volume of sales and the method of implementation. The most profitable option is sale of tomatoes through retail chains or catering establishments.
Cafes and restaurants need not so much cheap as quality products. Sales of the crop to wholesale buyers are also possible, but in this case the margin is significantly reduced.
Substandard can be taken for processing (making sauces, pastas, juices).
Much also depends on the time of sales. In winter, the margin increases by 1.5-2 times. This is due to a decrease in supply and an increase in production costs. Before starting winter cultivation, you need to estimate the cost of heating.
In particularly cold regions, the high cost of electricity can significantly reduce profitability. Many farmers prefer to extend the tomato cultivation period until November and suspend production in the winter.
According to marketers, the average business profitability on the industrial cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse fluctuates from 50 to 70%.
In lean years, it can increase, in a period of great competition from private households, it can decrease. Expansion of the greenhouse economy and distribution channels will help increase profitability.
Other popular crops for the greenhouse business, about which you can find out in more detail on our website: berries, flowers, herbs, cucumbers and other vegetables.
So that growing tomatoes in a greenhouse as a business does not go bankrupt, it is important to carefully calculate the costs and future earnings. You can start work from one small greenhouse, gradually building up momentum. It will help to attract loans and subsidies that are possible when registering a legal entity.